A New Mechanism for Gravitational Wave Emission in Core-Collapse Supernovae

Christian D. Ott, Adam Burrows, Luc Dessart, and Eli Livne
Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 201102 (2006)

- Gravitational Wave Signature Data -


We present a new theory for the gravitational-wave signatures of core-collapse supernovae. Previous studies identified axisymmetric rotating core collapse, core bounce, postbounce convection, and anisotropic neutrino emission as the primary processes and phases for the radiation of gravitational waves. Our results, which are based on axisymmetric Newtonian supernova simulations, indicate that the dominant emission process of gravitational waves in core-collapse supernovae may be the oscillations of the protoneutron star core. The oscillations are predominantly of g-mode character, are excited hundreds of milliseconds after bounce, and typically last for several hundred milliseconds. Our results suggest that even nonrotating core-collapse supernovae should be visible to current LIGO-class detectors throughout the Galaxy, and depending on progenitor structure, possibly out to megaparsec distances.


Below we provide the gravitational wave signature data for the three models discussed in our article. Model s11WW and s25WW employed the 11 and 25 Msun progenitors of [Woosley & Weaver 1995] and model m15b6 used the slowly rotating 15 Msun model of [Heger et al. 2005]. For each model we computed the gravitational wave emissions from mass-quadrupole and neutrino components. A quantitative summary of the results can be found here (PNG) or here (PDF). All data files are in gzipped plain text ASCII format.

Additional waveforms of the GW emission from protoneutron star pulsations are available on the Ott 2009 page.
An in-depth discussion of the acoustic mechanism of core-collapse supernovae can be found in Burrows et al. 2006 and Burrows et al. 2007.


Download tar-ball including gravitational wave data of all models.
  s11WW s25WW m15b6
Mass-quadrupole emission
time (s), h+ scaled to 10 kpc distance.
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Mass-quadrupole emission
Gravitational wave energy spectra. Frequency (Hz), dE/df (Msunc2)
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Emission due to anisotropic neutrino radiation
time (s), h+ scaled to 10 kpc distance. The waveforms were extracted at 100 km radius. Note that -- as discussed in Ott 2009 -- with present radiation-transport technology (multi-group flux-limited diffusion in VULCAN/2D), the GW signal from anisotropic neutrino emission has an unfortunate dependence on the radius of signal extraction. The waveforms available here should only be used as guidance of what to expect from this emission process.
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Emission due to anisotropic neutrino radiation
Gravitational wave energy spectra. Frequency (Hz), dE/df (Msunc2).
Note that owing to the non-periodicity of the signals, even periodic boundaries had to be assumed for the discrete Fourier transform. The spectra were cut at 1000 Hz and rescaled to correctly yield the total emitted energy.
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