Correlated Gravitational Wave and Neutrino Signals from General-Relativistic Rapidly Rotating Iron Core Collapse

Christian D. Ott, Ernazar Abdikamalov, Evan O'Connor, Christian Reisswig, Roland Haas, Peter Kalmus, Steve Drasco, Adam Burrows, and Erik Schnetter
Phys. Rev. D, 86, 024026 (2012)



We present results from a new set of 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of rotating iron core collapse. We assume octant symmetry and focus on axisymmetric collapse, bounce, the early postbounce evolution, and the associated gravitational wave (GW) and neutrino signals. We employ a finite-temperature nuclear equation of state, parameterized electron capture in the collapse phase, and a multi-species neutrino leakage scheme after bounce. The latter captures the important effects of deleptonization, neutrino cooling and heating and enables approximate predictions for the neutrino luminosities in the early evolution after core bounce. We consider 12-MSun and 40-MSun presupernova models and systematically study the effects of (i) rotation, (ii) progenitor structure, and (iii) postbounce neutrino leakage on dynamics, GW, and, neutrino signals. We demonstrate, that the GW signal of rapidly rotating core collapse is practically independent of progenitor mass and precollapse structure. Moreover, we show that the effects of neutrino leakage on the GW signal are strong only in nonrotating or slowly rotating models in which GW emission is not dominated by inner core dynamics. In rapidly rotating cores, core bounce of the centrifugally-deformed inner core excites the fundamental quadrupole pulsation mode of the nascent protoneutron star. The ensuing global oscillations (f ~ 700-800 Hz) lead to pronounced oscillations in the GW signal and correlated strong variations in the rising luminosities of antineutrino and heavy-lepton neutrinos. We find these features in cores that collapse to protoneutron stars with spin periods <~2.5 ms and rotational energies sufficient to drive hyper-energetic core-collapse supernova explosions. Hence, GW or neutrino observations of a core collapse event could deliver strong evidence for or against rapid core rotation. Joint GW + neutrino observations would allow to make statements with high confidence. Our estimates suggest that the GW signal should be detectable throughout the Milky Way by advanced laser-interferometer GW observatories, but a water-Cherenkov neutrino detector would have to be of near-megaton size to observe the variations in the early neutrino luminosities from a core collapse event at 1 kpc.


Here we provide numerical and tabulated results of this paper. Should you have comments or questions, please contact Christian Ott (cott #at#



Gravitational Waveforms

We provide gravitational waveforms hD [in cm] for 12 models s12WH07j{0-5} and s40WH07j{0-5} (see the paper for naming convention of the models).

s12WH07 models download s12WH07_GWs.tar.bz2
s40WH07 models download s40WH07_GWs.tar.bz2


Neutrino Luminosity

We provide neutrino luminosity vs. time data for 12 models s12WH07j{0-5} and s40WH07j{0-5} and for each neutrino type (see the paper for naming convention of the models and further details). The luminosity is in Bethe and time is in seconds.

s12WH07 model nu_a luminosity download s12WH07_nua.tar_.bz2
s12WH07 model nu_e luminosity download s12WH07_nua.tar_.bz2
s12WH07 model nu_x luminosity download s12WH07_nux.tar_.bz2
s40WH07 model nu_a luminosity download s40WH07_nux.tar_.bz2
s40WH07 model nu_e luminosity download s40WH07_nue.tar_.bz2
s40WH07 model nu_x luminosity download s40WH07_nux.tar_.bz2


Central density

We provide central density vs. time data for 12 models s12WH07j{0-5} and s40WH07j{0-5} (see the paper for naming convention of the models).

s12WH07 models download s12WH07_rho_c_vs_t.tar_.bz2
s40WH07 models download s40WH07_rho_c_vs_t.tar_.bz2